Tools overview

Problem tree

To explore cause and effect.A tree can be used to explore cause and effect or problem and solution. The various elements of a t...

Access and control matrix

To analyse who has the power to access and control different resources and who is denied this.The Access and Control Matrix enc...

Community scorecard

To help groups assess services, facilities programmes or projects run by government, NGOs or other organisations, by grading th...

Chapatti diagram

To explore relationships between things – particularly the relative importance, influence or power of people, organisations or ...

3Ps power circles

To deepen analysis about how power relationships work at 3 different levels related to how we interact with the world: :persona...

Pairwise ranking matrix

To compare a set of issues and find out which is the most important to participants. Known as a pairwise or preference ranking ...

Social audit

To collect and present evidence about a programme or service.                               The Social Audit process uses parti...

Body map

To explore issues around health and sexuality, women’s rights and violence against women.Steps in the processDraw the outline o...

Balloons and stones

To help identify factors that might help or hinder you in your work or in your progress towards a goal. The stones represent th...

Focus group discussion

To bring together a group of individuals with similar interests or experiences to explore a particular issue in a structured wa...

Daily activity chart

To help participants to analyse how their time is used each day.The processDraw a daily timetable from sunrise to sunset.Ask pa...

Public services map

To analyse the state of a public service (e.g. education) and the impacts on local people, and to analyse and prioritise the mo...

Seasonal calendar

To help participants to analyse the distribution of agricultural work / crops / illnesses / etc. over the year.Cross referencin...

Action plan matrix

To support participants to develop a community action plan.Steps Community members develop action plans based on the solutions ...

Cobweb for rights analysis

To help understand the rights situation and of different groups in a community.In the example below the focus is on women's rig...

Activity mapping

To explore the different activities that women and men do each day and how these contribute to the local economy.The tool asks ...

Timelines

To track changes or document the history of a community or organisation.By capturing the chronology of events as perceived an...

Social map

This is a bird’s eye view of a village that shows the demographic details and the social infrastructure available for the peopl...

Forum theatre

To help people explore how they might change their reality and rehearse possible actions. In forum theatre a play or scene, usu...

River

To explore the history of an individual, community or organisation. The characteristics of a river (its changing width, current...

Peeling the onion

To uncover and facilitate a process of deeper analysis about different forms of power related to specific issue.Visible power: ...

Community power map

To map spaces of power in a clear, visual way and presenting local information, problems and opportunities. A community map can...

Maps

To present local information, problems and opportunities in a clear, visual way. A basic map of a local area can be overlaid wi...

Power flower

To look at shifts in different forms of power. The power flower tool provides a critical lens and a simple way to gather, conso...

Citizens' budget

To share information about a budget in a clear and simple way. Budgets reports are often very long and written in complicated t...

Citizens' voice

Citizens' voice is an approach to citizen journalism that can support the extension of communities’ capacity to pursue their ow...

Body map - power within and power to

To facilitate critical analysis about shifts in ‘power within and power to’ with a focus on sensitive subjects such as sexual a...

Power line

To help participants explore the unequal distribution of power amongst people.  It can evoke many negative emotions among parti...

Natural resources map

To identify the natural resources within a community and to discuss changes in the availability and quality of such resources. ...

Agricultural map

To show the different crops grown and / or livestock kept in a community.Steps in the processThe group may wish to begin the ex...

Transparency board

To share information about government or NGO projects and programmes.Transparency Boards are used to share information about pr...

Household expenditure wallet

To explore how households distribute their income to provide care.This tool focuses on how households earn and spend their inco...

Chapatti diagram - spaces of power

To explore power relationships between organisations and people, focusing on spaces of power (closed, invited, created).The cha...

Transect walk

A transect walk is a systematic walk along a defined path (transect) across a community to explore conditions by observing, ask...

Participatory expenditure tracking

To track the flow of public resources through different levels of government. Information is gathered from the central, local a...

Forcefield analysis

To identify helpers and spoilers – people, organisations or events that might help or hinder your work. For a similar tool, ada...

Role play

To analyse issues and to rehearse speaking up in new situations or on different topics. Everyone has different roles in differe...

Suggestion box

To enable citizens to submit anonymous complaints, suggestions or questions. Community suggestions boxes allow citizens to subm...

People’s caravan

To raise awareness or lobby on an issue.  A group of people travelling together in procession often to raise awareness or lobby...

Card sort - problem prioritisation

To prioritise issues identified by the community.After identification of all the problems, prioritisation of these is done thro...

Ideal future map

To discuss what the participants would like to see in their village in future and to prioritise amongst these.Steps in the pr...

What is VAT? The shopping list.

Participants discuss what ‘VAT’ and ‘VAT  exemptions’ are by looking at local products they have bought recently. Objec...

Role play - understanding tax

The idea of ‘tax’ is explored through a role play. Topics should be chosen according to their relevance to the local context, f...

Pillars of power

Use pillars of power analysis tool to identify the institutions without whose support your target would collapse. It helps you ...

Community meetings - monitoring

To enable community members and other stakeholders to meet regularly to monitor progress towards agreed goals and are able to i...

The ideal school – paying twice for education

The idea that tax-pays-for-education is explored through a school mapping activity.ObjectivesTo explore links between paying ta...

The ‘tax-pays-for’ photo

The relation between tax and public services is explored through a photo action.NB. This tool needs at least one camera or mobi...

Master suppression techniques and counter strat...

Master suppression techniques can be used as an analytical tool to understand and analyze situations where unequal power positi...

Gatekeeper tool

To identify people who can help you access duty bearers relevant to your advocacy or campaigning work.The processDraw up a tabl...

Ripples of change

To assess the levels of change resulting from a programme or project. A stone dropped in water creates ripples outwards. This i...

Value for money grid

To review community or organisational costs related to a particular programme intervention or project and assess value for mone...

Who pays tax? The teacher, the vendor and the f...

The facilitator uses a series of questions to three taxpayers (a teacher, a market vendor and a farmer) to introduce the idea o...

Traffic light ranking

Stickers or markers of three colours - red, yellow and green - are used to indicate safe, semi-safe and unsafe.StepsThe partici...

The tax stones

To introduce the idea of tax systems that help the poor (tax justice), to explore links between paying taxes and having service...

Bridge

To develop or evaluate an action plan.The image of a bridge over a river (or road) is used to show the steps taken from the pas...

Leaky pot

To explore how governments lose revenue through tax avoidance and corruption. This image of a leaking pot is used to support pa...

Care sharing square

To help identify actors that can support and share an individual's care work.The tool helps to introduce the idea that care is ...

Helping relationship spiderweb

To explore the web of people and organisations that can support a person in a difficult situation and to identify what makes a ...

Tax Biscuit

The fact that big foreign companies are taking more from poor countries than they are giving is explored through the image of a...

Flow chart

To help make sense of different processes or complex systems - to explore cause, effect and inter-connections.Flow charts can b...

Kite - grounding international work

To explore how international campaigns can be grounded and linked to the local level.The tool can be used to review or evaluate...

Simple ranking matrix

To rank issues according to their importance to the group. StepsIf you are working with a large group, subdivide the participan...

Diamond ranking

To set priorities after a discussion or a brainstorm.Steps in the processDivide the participants into small groups of 4-8 peopl...

Income and expenditure tree

To analyse income and expenditure of an individual, household or organisation.Steps in the processIn this example we look at ho...

Mobility map

To explore where people go, for what reasons, the frequency of their visits, distances covered, and modes of transport used.Ste...

The market mountain - multiple taxation

Participants explore tax problems at the market place, including the idea of ‘multiple taxation’, by collectively interviewing ...

Local tax indicators - what have we achieved?

A list of indicators for LRP staff to categorise and assess their gains on tax. This can be shared with community people too.Ob...

Solutions matrix

To explore possible solutions to a particular issue or set of issues.StepsBased on the results of the ranking tool, ask partici...

Timeline - action planning

To plan for action by marking key activities on a timeline or 'yardstick'.StepsMap each of the actions in your action plan alon...

The tax scale – tax holidays for locals or for ...

With this tool participants explore the concept of tax holidays in big companies by comparing it to the VAT tool or the tool of...

Tax body map

A body map is used to look at the effects of not having public services on local people’s rights, especially women (and youth)....

Criteria ranking matrix

To rank different items / issues against a set of criteria.Steps in the processHere we use the example of a criteria ranking of...

Monitoring Matrix of Information Access

This tool was developed to support civil society organizations, citizens and civil servants in evaluating the performance of lo...

Spectrum of allies

Movements seldom win by overpowering the opposition; they win by shifting support out from under it. Use a spectrum-of-allies a...

Process diagram

To show the different stages involved in a process, including details of who does what and the time or cost involved in the dif...

The tax cow

The image of a cow is used to explore the idea of tax collection.ObjectiveTo highlight the importance of fair tax collection (m...

Income and expenditure pie chart

To analyse the relative allocation of an individual or organisation's income on different categories of expenditure. It is a pa...

Public service trust diagram

To explore the levels of trust in public services in a community.StepsFor all the issues identified previously in the process, ...

Safety map

To identify safe and unsafe areas in a city or community.This exercise was designed as part of the Safe Cities Urban Book proce...

Income and expenditure calendar

To analyse income and expenditure over the year of an individual, household or organisation.Steps in the processIn this example...

What would happen if ...?

To explore what happens to individuals and communities when care for people or for the environment is not provided.  Participan...

Report card (for documenting issues)

To document issues, identifying who is impacted and how and who is responsible.This documentation tool was designed as part of ...

Systems diagram

To help make sense of a system, exploring the interdependence of different elements within it.A systems diagram may be used to ...

Monitoring Matrix of Local Fees and Taxes

This tool has been developed to support community organizations, district platforms and local communities to follow the process...

Safety walk

To identify areas in the community that are safe and unsafe for women.NB: This exercise should be facilitated by a trained trai...

WORK AREAS

Empowerment

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Internal Accountability

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M&E - Measuring Power Shifts

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M&E - Value for Money Analysis

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Other

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Promoting Rights in Schools

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Public Service Accountability

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PVA - Vulnerability Analysis

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Reflection-Action Cycle

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Reflection-Action Lenses

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Rooted Campaigning

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Safe Cities - The Urban Book

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Tax Power

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Village Book

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Women's Access to Markets

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Women's Unpaid Care Work

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Youth Programming

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